Наследие и культура

Heritage and culture in Kazakhstan

The folk heritage of Turkish literature consists of legends, tales, proverbs, judgment and poetry that speak of great leagues and deeds. The fictional literature stems from folk art, the first examples of fine arts that pertain to the Stone Age. It is embodied in the Karato Mountains and Cantau in the form of animal images inscribed on the rocks.

Drawings on rocks in the Neolithic and Bronze Age in Bayanol Cave (Pavlodar region), Tanbali Corridor (Almaty Region) (images-deer, lion, hunter with bow, bull, fishing gear in a cart, cow, etc.) and carved forms on stones on the north coast of Lake Palkash They all represent the way of life and habits of the tribes that lived in the country. The ancient Turkish arts in the territory of Kazakhstan can be divided into two groups: the period of the Turkish Kajanat (6-8 centuries) and the period of Kibusak (ages 7.13). Most of them are in the form of primitive human as well as images and other forms. During the 16-18 century, stone sculptures were gradually halted and, instead, emphasis was placed on the decoration of stone shrines with stone manuscripts.

Within the ancient tribal arts, the carpets were decorated in different forms and during the period of the 5-7 century, contemporary forms of carpet were invented. Between the 8-12 century in the cities of Jassi, Aoerar, Siganak, Taraz, Sayam, Kulan, Merki and Balasagon, many types of arts were developed. Bowls and crockery were used to conserve water, scenes were filmed from life and different colors were used in paint (black, brown, yellow, red), and leather and mineral products were decorated with various forms of national heritage. For the exterior walls of the architectural structures, interior parts and domes, they are decorated in different shapes with their enchanting beauty.

In Kazakhstan, well-known forms of architecture have been used in Europe and Asia, which have included the best examples of the national arts from ancient times to the present, decorated from inside and outside with harmonious colours and exquisite motifs, furnished with carpets and wardrobes and decorated with exterior layers of products Leather jewelry where the use of gold and silk yarns has spread. In the 19th century, there were images of Russian artists in the. Verchagen etc.) who Zaro Kazakhstan and photographed the lives of its inhabitants.

Kazakh culture

Alkazakh Backpacker Tent

The tent of the bud (called “Kiez Awia”)-traditional Bedouin residence, fast installation, easy jaw, and light motion, It is transported on the camel or horse, and its lid prevents the rain from leaking.

Ensures the round shape of the Kyiz “His own agility and his protection from external climatic changes, and at the time Itself expresses the lifestyle of a Bedouin man who always travels from one place to another. The tent The Kazakh Bedouin respond to ritual changes, and protect from the low rainfall great protection, It saves the heat in summer, and in winter, on the contrary, it protects against the severity of the cold, which resembles a world Desert plants that actually react to heat frequencies. This unique portability is important Very. It is known that in some regions of Asia the seasonal temperature change is about 80 degrees And more. “Kiez-ae” bears any natural pandemics, And resist strong storms and earthquakes without any problem

The development of the “Kiez-Ouya” during the centuries Many forms and rules of precision for the composition and the change, the ways of its zharteh, furnishing and its suits. Fits “Keez Awia” on a person’s scale, and internal planning takes into account the interests Their owners and tastes provide them with the possibility of a comfortable economic livelihood in desert conditions.

The spherical shape of this House expresses its symbolism Special. The ball and all spherical shapes usually symbolize the world, and this symbol usually prevails The nature of Oriental culture, these were architectural installations or drawings or lines and inscriptions. Overcome shapes Geometric circular in the eastern culture on the corners shapes. If we consider that the middle “Keez Awia” is the center of the world, the person at this point is surrounded by Out with equal points of distance, and so we get a miniature space panel that includes a human being Located in the vast Space center. This symbolism reflects a distinctive form of understanding the world: Man In the heart of nature and in the center of the universe, not above it. But the innovative world of the KISS cannot His separation from the outside world, but he does not change nature, but he contemplates and realizes it.

And so it turns out that the purpose of the work “Kiez-ae” in spherical form not only to be practical, comfortable and warm. This form Also important in philosophical terms, because it depicts the understanding of the nomadic Kazakh of this world.

The dome (called “Shaneraq”) One of the parts of the sacred tent, because it expresses the family’s effects and is considered a symbol of happiness. Love. It is no coincidence that it has become an essential element in the Republic of Kazakhstan

The “white threshold” is The sacred boundary between the house and the outside world. And determine how you enter through this threshold is appropriate The house owners are yours. If you enter a right man and bend the head, that means you deserve all the respect. Acting on the contrary means insulting the honour and dignity of the home, its owner and his people. So that it doesn’t happen without Will or neglect, they make the threshold of the lower door deliberately high, and the threshold of the upper door of the Hafdah.

“For the Kasakh is a symbol of continued Offspring. According to the family habits of the Kazakh, the father gives his children the adults who have formed They are, a part of his money to benefit independently, it was “Keez Ouya” A prime gift from the parents. The legacy of the father is “Queen”. -The youngest of his children, and has a priority place in the family.

On all those who entered the house as an expression of respect “Shaneshed” is standing on his knee, and if he does not come as a guest, he enters something.

“The white threshold” is the limit. Sacred between the house and the outside world. And determine how you enter through this threshold suitable owners House to you. If you enter a right man and bend the head, that means you deserve all the respect. Acting on the contrary means insulting the honour and dignity of the home, its owner and his people. So that it doesn’t happen without Will or neglect, they make the threshold of the lower door deliberately high, and the threshold of the upper door of the Hafdah.
Anyone who enters the tent will live if there is no one: “Shed light on your house!”

The horizontal surface of the tent is divided Kazakh Bedouin to seven sections by functional mark:
1) The honorary place “Tor”, located opposite the door of “Kyiz Ouen”, which is more The parts of the tent are beyond the door;
2) The place of the owner of the house-close to the entrance to the left of the honorary place;
3) Kitchen section-closer to the door of the house owner;
4) The young-family members were on the right of the honorary place;
5) place for several horse-nearer to the entrance of the youth place the navel members, as well as in half Right of the tent;
6) Entrance, Bab Al Khaimah vs. honorary place;
7) stove (and hard)-in the center of the tent.

Tor is a custom-honored place For guests, it is usually placed here “Jokaikaq”, “Jock” (Bedding in wardrobe Wooden-frilly, stand on the legs), attached a weapon, and a mottled whip, and “Dompra” (Musical instrument), and other valuable things.

And in the past the door overlooks the east, so The Sun enters the house first in the morning, and as the first guest shines on Tor-the honorary place In Kiez-Ouya. On the left of the guest–the northern half of the tent–“soltotic,” And on his right–the southern half–“untotic.” So, who sits in the tent can To determine its location without compass.

The Kazakh people are renowned for their hospitality, and it is One of the main duties in their lives. They greet someone who came home as a honored guest and seated him. In Tor, and they don’t let him leave before he tastes food. It is a symbol of the generosity and hospitality of the people. At any time of the day, and regardless of They sit around the table or not, the landlady offers food on the trip, and they ask the guest To taste. Anyone who prepares for travel or a long journey must eat food at home. And maintains This habit today

The left half of the house is considered special for women, Light furniture is located close to the door, which is a “Asadel Kibijah” (household Closet) Household and materials). And here he is commenting on Kirijeh bags for desert and cloth For different purposes: “Korgin” (Two-part pod: For purposes and materials), And a box (for clothes and bedding), “Don’t Be Around” for the house tools, and “cyst.” Around the “(to move the cups), and on the left side of the house was” tastcheating “(bed), His special form and the upper and lower bed part were slightly elevated, and since the foot they noticed that in this The posture of human resting well, where proven by modern medicine.

“Keiz Awia” cover

The Keycover is composed “From the felt made of sheep wool and the leaves in autumn.

The felts are difficult to process, so all the youth of the village participate in this process. They In the beginning, the stacked wool tease with a special stick of 50 cm length is subjected to carpentry and leveling. This work is the share of women, who collect wool in a pile, and then they turn around The pile and they start to tease the wool with sticks.

Wool tease requires a special skill. Young people usually love to participate in this process, where they are in parallel laughing, playing and joking. Meet the elderly after finishing the wool tease when the wool owner, echoing the phrase (O Lord increase Quantity of Mandov wool).

After the wool tease is finished, stretch the mat evenly, then assemble in Roll, then wrapped with strong ropes. Two or three men will then roll the fascia on the floor, While the rest of the men and women are in different directions. Women are later Wool with their elbows. The commoners are called this process (Browning felts).

The Kazakh likes the white color, so they choose White sheep in order to mow her wool to turn it into lids for a sheep. People in some areas With a white cloth above the felts. Event tents attract the attention of the Headmasters With its spotless whiteness. For the record this bright white color is due to the coating of felt in dialogue Chalk or lime or special coating extracted from the bones of burnt animals.

The cover of the Tent is divided (“Keez Awia”) To three pieces. The first piece in turn is divided into four parts, and this piece is intended to cover The lower section of “Kiez Ouen”. The second piece of the cover consists of two parts, It covers the middle section of the tent structure, and the third piece is the task of covering the upper section, They are decorated and distinguished by the abundance of decorations and drawings. Decorate the outside parties The interior of the second piece of the tent cover with drawings and decorations of colored felts in the middle And parties. These motifs and drawings express different things, such as the Lamb horn, the goose neck, Deer Horn etc… Decorate the first piece of the tent cover with special decorations

He made a wooden door. And felts. The door gauges are equal to those of the wooden door. The door is made of Labbadi Of white felts, and be ornate. Sometimes the white felts of the door are mixed “Keez Awia” in gray bad. The Kazakh puts a mat under the door in order to keep On the temperature in the “Kiez-en” On frost days, and to prevent water from entering. When the rain rains. The LABII door is installed in the second or middle piece of the lid, which Apply to the structure of the tent. The door is installed from the middle, so it does not open when the wind is strong.

To maintain the cohesion of the lid and not to be bothered The mats are stretched between the chassis and the lid. The mats are many colors, decorated with mystical motifs. These mats are called the label (rolled mats). These mats give the sheep a view Beautiful inside.

The “Kiez-ae” cover consists of two layers: A layer of mats and a layer of felts, in order to protect the residents of the Kiiz-en Of rain, sunshine and cold air. The job of “Kiez-en” process is not Denies the beauty of its elements and decoration and drawings of many colors, which makes it perform aesthetic function Besides its practical function.

Tent structure

The base structure of the Kyiz tent “From the wall, the roof, the dome, the wooden doors, called the Kazakh language, What can be translated into bones. Chassis parts are fastened by ropes and straps Contract. Place the mat over the chassis and cover with a layer of felts.

Collected in the spring the timber needed to work Structure of the Tabernacle. The structure is usually manufactured in late spring or summer. Kazakh uses technique Especially for settling wooden sticks after removing their crust: a hole is prepared, where the fire is made using Dried animal dung, then settles the wooden pieces, so that they take their desired shape and are placed in Special templates. These molds are usually made of bricks, stones and tree trunks. And then output The wall and ceiling of the mold are being made longitudinal grooves in them with a dedicated metal tool so as to give it The required flexibility.

Making the wall of willow Wood. A fire of goat dung in a pit, and placed above it Willow Woods, and the wet sticks are exposed For steam for later settlement. The wood that has been vapour is settled and given its desired shape, To become stronger and stronger. The wall is shaped as a wooden grille, consisting of cylindrical wooden sticks Perpendicular to each other and fastened at the ends by the belts of the skin of beauty. Prove this Wooden sticks among them with a thick pole. The installation has a portability, so you can Easily move and open the nets. The Nets are made up of pieces, so that each one of them proves Independent, each piece is called (suite). The number of wings in the wall is related to the area of the tent itself.

Composed of “Kiez Ouya” The large of 12-14 suites, the middle of 6 wings, is called a hexagonal-wing tent. There are two For the Nets in Kiez-en. Called the first (“Turcuz”) and it is characterized by a lot of pieces, That consists of the nets and the small gaps in them. Such networks are usually made for walls Big tents. The second type is called “Gilcuz”, and it simply features Cut the Nets in it and enlarge the blanks.

Considered the latter weaker than the first, and were used By the middle-income Kazakh. But there is a saying to the people that Gilcuz Stronger and firmer to face strong winds, but Torchwood is better if there is Heavy rainwashes. Called the Land of the Tabernacle (“Ayaq”) and its top (“bass”) And its side parties (“Saganaq”). Each piece is called a wall grille (“jelly”). There are 3 forms of (“jelly”) in the tent cords: long, medium and short. Each rope In the tent consists of 14 “jelly” long and 9 medium and 9 short, i.e. the wall of the tent Consists of 256 pieces (“jelly”). The number of pieces in the ceiling is related to the number of pieces in the wall.

The Kazakh leaves when you install The wall grille, which is called (“Gelcuz”) is a void between the pieces (“jelly”), Thus, the blanks of the nets are larger than the blanks in the “Turcuz”. Called People This type (leave a blank line). This expression in the contemporary Kazakh language became meaningless Else, it is (new paragraph). There’s a popular example of the Kazakh hand, not going through blanks. The tent grille, and it was meant to start “Torchwood”, but it’s used To express strength and durability.

The roof of the tent consists of “the” -Concave wooden sticks attached to the wall, with the task above holding the dome.
The roof is brought from willow Wood and poplar branches. The preparation of the roof is subject to the same method, which Subject to the wall. The lower part of the roof is fastened to the wall, and is flattened and curved, so The tent gives the shape of the dome. The roof cover contains drawings and geometric motifs.
Experts say the length of the Kazakh tent is 3, 40 meters, while the length of the ceiling in modern tents It is 2 meters to 2, 20 meters.

The Dome-

A wooden circle at the top of the “Kiez Awia”, which is intended to stabilize the upper ends of the ceiling, and simultaneously play the role of the window and the place of exit of the smoke. The collar surrounding the dome is usually made of two or three branches of birch tree after connecting it with each other. The twigs must be naturally curved. The Kazak feeds the ring with various floral and animal motifs: for example, the sheep’s horns or teeth. Leave around the collar vacuum to enter the upper ends of the ceiling through it, knowing that the length of the one is up to 2.5 meters long. The wooden sticks are at the top of the ceiling with a sharp four-sided end. The number of sharp endings is equal to the number of roofs in the dome.

Yes, giving the dome the pointy shape. On the collar, cross-shaped pointy sticks are shown in half-circle. The number is usually 3-4, with Can be increased in some cases. The angle between these intersecting sticks is 45 degrees, Which helps in the flow of rain water on the surface. The ring sticks are installed in four transverse wooden hooks.

The dome of the two sides is tied with braided ropes in order to give the tent a beauty and strength. Attached bags Filled with sand or stones at the ends of the ropes, so that the structure of the tent does not move when the wind blows .

There are two types of domes: type Called “Tabaq,” and another type called “Chapaq.” The tent collar includes “Chapaq” domes on the sticks, the dome of the Tabaq tent is made Of a whole circular tree shaped dish.

The domes and the various chassis parts are heavy. And durable in high tents, making it able to carry the lid and lid Winter wind power and bear the weight of the snow. The structure proves firmly and sturdiness, making Move the tent and lift it possible without dismantling the structure. The body weight in the big tents is eight. Ropes 150-200 kg.

The door of the Kazakh “Kiez Wies” consists By tradition of two wide, and this is due to an old belief that, opening the door wide In front of the next means wishing him success and good. It’s rare to find Kiez-en. With a single shutter door. The door is called wide in the commoners (al-Sarar). The door is made of two shutter Of the sill and the lists and shutter. They adorn the door with bone and metallic motifs and engraved paintings. The door of “Kiez-en” is usually made of whole wooden planks. It is not desirable according to Kazakh traditions reclining on the door lists and stand at the doorstep and close the door firmly. People think that any of these jobs can lead to the eviction of pleasure and the affluence of life.

Requirements of the Kazakh Bedouin tent

The mission of necessities boils “Keez Awia” in the installation of the outer cover of “Kiez Ouen” and interior decoration And parts of the structure. There are different forms of supplies, all of which are tapes and ropes made From different materials: non-tanned skins, sheep wool, camel and horse hair. The cord is considered Of sheep wool is the most powerful, so it is used to install the lid and bundles “Kiez Ouya” From above the felts. This rope is called (“Beyi Bao”). Called the rope, which proves the sticks The roof, (“tanghish”), usually has a skin of beauty.

Download Cloth Tapes Inside the Kiez-en of the dome collar. When the wind blows, as we mentioned before, it connects Bags packed with stones to these straps and ropes. So these tapes and ropes also strengthen The pillars of “Kiez-en” in stormy weather. It also descends from the dome to tie sticks. Wooden when transporting the roof of “Kiez-en”. Otherwise, these tapes give Keyes. Ouia “is a beautiful sight, so its ends are often evil-shaped.

The interior view of Keez Ouen

It’s in Kiez-en. Interior: Furniture (box, wardrobe for laying brushes and bedding, canvas, for ipad Decorated with walls, carpet, bed, clothes and various objects, rough woolen hand Rugs And striped without a bar, for the ipad is a racket and beaded, and a large wooden Duke for the preservation of kitchen utensils, Leather or felt cover for drinking pot, ceramic utensils, fur and other items.

For every piece of “Kiez-ae” The interior has its own place according to national traditions and beliefs.
For example (“Tor”) is a place of special importance because it is reserved for guests, there is Table covered with cover and bedding. So this part of the Kiez-en For purposes that serve this purpose.

Jokayaq “-A Wooden wardrobe, stand on the legs, to save sleeping supplies and winter purposes of moisture and dust. It is made of pine or cedar wood, decorated with engravings and engraving on wood, The restaurant with bone and metal.

Items are placed within a specific system: Put on top of the closet the beginning of a box to save the guest’s purposes, put a lid with woolen lashes, then Put the coat and the scalp, place the top blanket and pillows. The placement of the purposes is considered “Jokekaq” randomly on it’s bad fall. Girls or wives of children Usually arrange these things.

The box is one of Keyes ‘ furniture. “Internal”. Clean stuff is placed in this box. The box is characterized by the beauty of its inscriptions And ornament. The decorations are fed by bone and metal, the roof and sides of the box are interspersed with decorations and drawings Different and some inscriptions are placed in the way of pressing and drilling. The carpet of the “ash” under Treasury (“Gokayaq”), near which the equestrian tools are placed for use At events and celebrations.

Where the fireplace is in the middle “Keez Awia”. This is the best place for the flame of Fire and for the distribution of warmth throughout “Keez Awia”. Installs over the fireplace the position of a tripod to put the pot On top of it, this position is fitted with a hook (dog) to hang the teapot over the fire. Don’t To keep the dirty pots near the fireplace at night, because of the prevailing belief that the powers of what Wicked Meets at night about eating and unclean utensils. Since the hearth of the Kazakh nomads It is a sacred thing, so they always seek to keep it clean. Near the fireplace is a brass jug. Full of water. The water in this jug must always be warm, so that guests can And the owners of the house ablution whenever they want.

“En Bushagha”-suite Women in the Kyiz Ouen. In this suite there are various food items and utensils. Kitchen, the bacon is attached to the wall here, placed here on a wooden rack and a leather bowl fills With horse milk. In this suite there is a rack that is placed on the most valuable and important materials (tea, Sugar, sweets. A curtain or barrier is often placed to separate this angle from “Keez Ouya” about the other parts.


The main sources of the Sikh literature are the Aldastan “Aliber Tonga, “Shaw Batier”, developed during the period between the 11th century and the century 3 BC. Scientific research has shown that the events described in them are closely related With the ancient history of the people of the Keckhi. The manuscripts show that the poems of the Turkish tribes are characterized by their strength And the depth of its ideas and richness of their content.

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